There is also the possibility that epigenetic inheritance is implicated in the passing down of certain cultural, personality or even psychiatric traits. For instance, historical "insults," such as Oliver Cromwell's brutal reconquest of Ireland in 1649, have led to an "embedding" of attitudes within the affected communities that persist for generations. Could it be that historical traumas, such as transatlantic slavery, leave some kind of genetic mark on the descendants of their victims? (Hunter, Phillip. What Genes Remember.) (

Jasienska (2009) argues that epigenetic effects of slavery in the 18th and the 19th century partly explain the lower average birth weight among African- Americans in the US. (Lundborg, Petter and Anders Stenberg. Nature, nurture and socioeconomic policy—What can we learn from molecular genetics?) (